Why in news.

  • The Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution in India has established a committee to develop a comprehensive framework for the Right to Repair.
  • This initiative is part of the Aatmanirbhar Bharat initiative and LiFE movement and aims to empower consumers by providing easy access to reliable repair services for devices, equipment, and home appliances.
  • The framework seeks to increase reparability, bring transparency, and generate employment opportunities while also recognizing the rights of manufacturers.
  • As US President Joe Biden’s executive order in 2021 highlighted, it is crucial to strike a balance between the rights of consumers and manufacturers when it comes to the right to repair.
  • With this bold step, India is setting an inspiring example for other nations to follow and taking a significant step towards achieving this balance.
  • The Right to Repair framework is a forward-thinking initiative that recognizes the importance of sustainable consumption and reducing e-waste.
  • It is a significant move towards building a consumer-centric ecosystem that focuses on extending the life of products and reducing costs, while also empowering consumers with their right to repair.
  • This framework has the potential to generate significant employment opportunities, contributing to India’s Aatmanirbhar Bharat initiative, which aims to make India self-reliant.


  • The Right to Repair movement has gained momentum in the U.S. with the recent passing of the Fair Repair Act in the State of New York.
  • This groundbreaking legislation mandates that manufacturers provide independent repair shops with the necessary repair information, tools, and parts to fix consumers’ purchased goods.
  • The Fair Repair Act is a significant win for consumer rights, allowing them to choose where to repair their devices and reducing the dependence on manufacturers’ costly and often time-consuming repair services.
  • However, the Act also raises concerns over the privacy, security, and quality of repairs, as well as the potential for intellectual property violations by independent repair shops.
  • Manufacturers argue that providing repair information, tools, and parts to independent repair shops could compromise the safety and security of their products, which they have worked hard to protect.
  • The Right to Repair movement has also sparked discussions on the environmental impact of electronic waste, with repair and refurbishment being a more sustainable solution than disposal and replacement.
  • Overall, the Fair Repair Act is a significant step forward for the Right to Repair movement, highlighting the importance of consumer choice, sustainability, and fair competition in the repair industry.

Right To Repair:

  • The Right to Repair movement is a global initiative aimed at breaking down barriers that prevent consumers from repairing their own products.
  • Sectors covered by this movement include farming equipment, mobile phones/tablets, consumer durables, and automobiles/automobile equipment.
  • The Indian government has launched the righttorepairindia.gov.in portal, which onboard leading brands and third-party technicians to provide easy access to repair services for consumers.
  • Some of the top brands already onboarded on the portal include Samsung, Honda, Kent RO Systems, Havells, Hewlett Packard, and Hero MotoCorp.
  • The ultimate goal of the Right to Repair movement is to promote sustainability by increasing the lifespan of products and making repair more cost-effective for consumers.
  • To achieve this, manufacturers are required to provide spare parts, tools, and repair information to customers, even for out-of-warranty products.
  • The movement originated in the USA in the 1950s, gaining recognition in other countries such as the UK, European Union, and India.
  • In the USA, the Motor Vehicle Owners’ Right to Repair Act 2012 was passed, requiring manufacturers to provide necessary documents and information to allow anyone to repair their vehicles, and Massachusetts became the first state to implement this law.
  • The scope of the legislation extends beyond just hardware to also include batteries, memory, and processing power of devices, unlocking the full potential of the Right to Repair movement.

Importance of Right to Repair 

  • The Right to Repair is of utmost importance for India as it can aid in the reduction of electronic waste, which is one of the country’s most pressing environmental issues.
  • By enabling the extension of the lifespan of electronic devices and appliances, the Right to Repair can significantly reduce e-waste generation in the country.
  • Providing access to third-party technicians under the framework of the Right to Repair can reduce costs for consumers who might not have the financial means to afford costly repairs or replacements.
  • The Right to Repair framework fosters a consumer-centric ecosystem that emphasizes transparency and collaboration between manufacturers, sellers, and consumers, promoting an environment of trust and cooperation.
  • The implementation of the Right to Repair can support small businesses that provide repair services, providing a level playing field with manufacturers who have previously held a monopoly on repairs.
  • The Right to Repair empowers consumers to make informed choices and take control of their own devices by giving them the ability to repair their own devices or choose where to have them repaired, ultimately increasing consumer satisfaction and reducing waste.

Challenges in Repairing of Electronic Goods

  • The cost of repairing electronic goods is skyrocketing, with technology advancing at a rapid pace, rendering repairs obsolete and nearly impossible.
  • Incompatibility is a significant challenge, as manufacturers refuse to release repair manuals, giving them a near-monopoly over repair workshops and allowing them to charge consumers exorbitant fees.
  • Proprietary control over spare parts gives manufacturers an unfair advantage, with most firms refusing to make their products compatible with those of other companies, further limiting consumers’ repair options.
  • Planned obsolescence is a common practice, resulting in products breaking down prematurely, making replacement a more cost-effective option than repair.
  • Big corporations deploy anti-competitive measures, effectively barring other businesses from repairing their products, creating monopolies that drive up costs for consumers and limit their choices.

Why do electronic manufacturers oppose the right to repair?

Major electronic manufacturers, such as Apple, Microsoft, Amazon, and Tesla, have been actively lobbying against the right to repair movement.

• These companies argue that granting third-party or amateur repairers access to their intellectual property could lead to exploitation and endanger the safety and security of their devices.

• Tesla, for instance, has vehemently opposed right to repair advocacy, citing potential threats to data security and cybersecurity.

• The manufacturers contend that allowing consumers and third parties to perform repairs could compromise the quality and functionality of their products.

Right to repair in India:

  • Despite the absence of specific legislation, the landmark ruling of the Competition Commission of India in the Shamsher Kataria v Honda Siel Cars India Ltd. case marked a turning point for the ‘Right to Repair’ movement in India.
  • This ruling held 14 automobile manufacturing companies accountable for anti-competitive practices and abuse of their dominant position by restricting the sale of spare parts solely to authorized dealers, thus preventing independent markets from accessing them.
  • While the Consumer Protection Act, 2019, implicitly addresses the ‘right to repair’ under Section 2(9), its lack of explicit provisions requires urgent attention.
  • The inclusion of a dedicated ‘right to repair’ clause in the said provision will not only create greater awareness among consumers but also strengthen their rights while advancing repair-related liability on various stakeholders, including policy recommendations, pertinent amendments, and even a specific law incorporating the right to repair.

Right to Repair:Provisions in other countries

  • Numerous countries have taken bold initiatives, adopting progressive policies and enacting legislation that recognizes and upholds the “right to repair,” aimed at combating the staggering amount of electronic waste produced annually.
  • In the UK, a landmark law was introduced in 2021, making it legally binding for manufacturers to provide spare parts to both consumers and third-party repair technicians.
  • The European Union has likewise enacted comprehensive regulations that member states will enforce, allowing manufacturers a two-year window to conform to the new legislation.
  • The Massachusetts Motor Vehicle Owners’ Right to Repair Act, which came into effect in 2012, mandates that automobile manufacturers furnish spare parts and diagnostics to both buyers and independent mechanics alike.
  • In France, a mandatory repairability index has been instituted for products, consisting of five critical parameters that enable consumers to determine whether a product is repairable, difficult to repair, or beyond repair. The period of product liability may vary based on the product and its lifespan.

Challenges of implementing right to repair in India:

  • Limited awareness of the right to repair among consumers hampers the growth of the repair industry in India, resulting in missed opportunities for savings and reducing electronic waste.
  • Insufficient information on repair options and procedures provided by manufacturers poses a significant hurdle for consumers seeking to exercise their right to repair, leading to costly repairs or premature device replacement.
  • Scarce availability of spare parts for older or less common devices presents a daunting challenge for repair technicians and consumers alike in accessing reliable repair services.
  • Manufacturers’ opposition to the right to repair on intellectual property and safety grounds threatens to undermine the passage of regulations or legislation supporting this right, depriving consumers of a vital tool for reducing electronic waste and saving money.
  • The absence of comprehensive regulations governing the right to repair in India creates confusion among consumers and repair technicians, impeding the development of a robust and thriving repair industry.

Maximizing Sustainability: Advancing Consumer Rights and Reducing Electronic Waste

  • Foster a culture of transparency and collaboration to enhance reparability and build a consumer-centric ecosystem.
  • Implement effective measures to increase the shelf life of devices, equipment, and home appliances while reducing costs.
  • Empower consumers by promoting clean energy transitions on World Consumer Rights Day 2023.
  • Prohibit manufacturers from imposing barriers that restrict consumers’ ability to repair their products.
  • Streamline trade between original equipment manufacturers and third-party sellers to promote a sustainable market.
  • Tackle the issue of planned obsolescence and the resulting electronic waste through proactive measures.

With the above strategies, we can maximize sustainability, protect consumer rights, and reduce electronic waste to promote a cleaner and greener future.

Way Forward:

  • The recent legislation in New York serves as a poignant reminder that consumers and manufacturers alike have a right to repair.
  • It is crucial to implement policy changes that recognize and protect the ‘right to repair’ through amendments to the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 or a separate law, as deemed fit.
  • We can support and encourage manufacturers who prioritize repair-friendly practices, while also choosing to avoid those who do not.
  • Recognition of the right to repair can promote a more sustainable and circular economy, reducing electronic waste and enabling consumers to prolong the lifespan of their products.
  • By promoting the right to repair, we can also encourage innovation in the repair and maintenance industry, creating new job opportunities and contributing to economic growth.
  • Ultimately, empowering both consumers and manufacturers through the right to repair can lead to a more equitable and sustainable society.


  • The escalating electronic waste crisis in India underscores the pressing need for the right to repair, making it a crucial issue of our time.
  • The onboarding of major brands on the unified portal and the government’s efforts to attract more participants attest to the growing momentum behind the right to repair movement.
  • Beyond its direct benefits to consumers, the right to repair holds enormous potential to foster a circular economy and combat the environmental impact of e-waste.
  • By empowering individuals to repair their electronics rather than disposing of them, this initiative promotes a culture of responsible consumption and resource conservation.
  • Ultimately, the right to repair is a critical step towards building a more sustainable and ethical society, one that values the preservation of resources and the protection of our planet for future generations.


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